Making Soap
From The Crude Elements of Earth

Part 1 - Making Slaked Lime

What is Needed:

Key Reactions:

CaCO3     + Heat ---> CaO  + CO2
Limestone + Heat ---> Lime + Carbon Dioxide

CaO  + H2O   <---> Ca(OH)2     + Heat
Lime + Water <---> Slaked Lime + Heat

Steps to Make Lime:

  1. Take seashells or limestone and heat in kiln or bonfire at 1000 C or 1800 F.
  2. Allow to cool to room temperature, but do not cool with water.
  3. Place shells or stone into container with water. Water should get hot.
  4. Decant solution to boil plate.
  5. Boil off water to yeild solid slaked lime.

Part 2 - Making Soda Ash and Potash

What is Needed:

Steps to Make Soda Ash and Potash:
  1. Put water in container.
  2. Burn wood to make ash.
  3. Heat water just to boil over fire.
  4. Mix ash into hot water.
  5. Let water/ash sit for one day, undisturbed.
  6. Remove charcol bits which are floating on the surface.
  7. Decant solution to boil plate.
  8. Boil off water to yeild solid soda ash and potash mixture.
Part 3 - Making Lye

What is Needed:

Key Reaction:

Ca(OH)2     + Na2CO3   ---> 2NaOH + CaCO3
slaked lime + soda ash ---> lye   + calcium carbonate

Steps to Make Lye:

  1. Mix 5 parts lime in water.
  2. Mix 7 parts soda ash/potash in water.
  3. Mix two solutions together thuroughly.
  4. Allow solid to drop out.
  5. Decant to boil plate.
  6. Boil off water to yeild lye.
Part 4 - Making Soap

What is Needed:

Key Reaction:

(RCO)3(C3H5O3) + 3NaOH ---> 3RCOONa + C3H5(OH3)
fat            +  lye  ---> soap   +  glycerol

Steps to Make Soap:

  1. Fill clear container with 3 parts (by wt.) water.
  2. Add 1 part (by wt.) lye to container. Solution will get hot.
  3. Melt 8 parts (by wt.) fat in other container.
  4. Allow fat and lye to cool down to being warm. Fat should remain a liquid.
  5. Pour fat or oil into clear container.
  6. Close lid tight and shake vigourously every 15 minutes until mixed.
  7. Pour into molds.
  8. Cover the molds.
  9. Allow to harden for several days.
  10. Remove soap from molds.
  11. Air cure the soap for 3 weeks.